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Dioguardi v. Durning, 139 F.2d 774 (1944)

Updated: Oct 28, 2023

๐Ÿ“Œ แƒจแƒ”แƒกแƒแƒ•แƒแƒšแƒ˜


แƒ™แƒ”แƒ—แƒ˜แƒšแƒ˜ แƒ˜แƒงแƒแƒก แƒ—แƒฅแƒ•แƒ”แƒœแƒ˜ แƒ›แƒแƒ‘แƒ แƒซแƒแƒœแƒ”แƒ‘แƒ แƒแƒ˜แƒšแƒแƒก แƒ แƒฃแƒ‘แƒ แƒ˜แƒ™แƒแƒจแƒ˜ โ€žแƒฅแƒ”แƒ˜แƒกแƒ˜ แƒแƒจแƒจ-แƒ“แƒแƒœโ€œ, แƒกแƒแƒ“แƒแƒช แƒฌแƒแƒ แƒ›แƒแƒ’แƒ˜แƒ“แƒ’แƒ”แƒœแƒ— แƒแƒšแƒขแƒ”แƒ แƒœแƒแƒขแƒ˜แƒฃแƒš แƒžแƒ”แƒ แƒกแƒžแƒ”แƒฅแƒขแƒ˜แƒ•แƒแƒก แƒกแƒแƒฅแƒแƒ แƒ—แƒ•แƒ”แƒšแƒแƒก แƒ™แƒแƒœแƒแƒœแƒ›แƒ“แƒ”แƒ‘แƒšแƒแƒ‘แƒ˜แƒกแƒ แƒ“แƒ แƒ–แƒแƒ’แƒแƒ“แƒแƒ“ แƒกแƒฎแƒ•แƒแƒ“แƒแƒกแƒฎแƒ•แƒ แƒกแƒแƒ›แƒแƒ แƒ—แƒšแƒ”แƒ‘แƒ แƒ˜แƒ•แƒ˜ แƒกแƒคแƒ”แƒ แƒแƒก แƒ›แƒœแƒ˜แƒจแƒ•แƒœแƒ”แƒšแƒแƒ•แƒแƒœ แƒกแƒแƒ™แƒ˜แƒ—แƒฎแƒ”แƒ‘แƒ–แƒ”. แƒแƒ› แƒกแƒ•แƒ”แƒขแƒจแƒ˜ แƒฉแƒ•แƒ”แƒœ แƒ’แƒแƒœแƒ•แƒ˜แƒฎแƒ˜แƒšแƒแƒ•แƒ— แƒจแƒ”แƒ”แƒ แƒ—แƒ”แƒ‘แƒฃแƒšแƒ˜ แƒจแƒขแƒแƒขแƒ”แƒ‘แƒ˜แƒก แƒ˜แƒฃแƒ แƒ˜แƒ“แƒ˜แƒฃแƒš แƒกแƒแƒฅแƒ›แƒ”แƒ”แƒ‘แƒกแƒ แƒ“แƒ แƒžแƒ แƒ”แƒชแƒ”แƒ“แƒ”แƒœแƒขแƒ”แƒ‘แƒก, แƒ’แƒ—แƒแƒ•แƒแƒ–แƒแƒ‘แƒ— แƒฃแƒœแƒ˜แƒ™แƒแƒšแƒฃแƒ  แƒžแƒ”แƒ แƒกแƒžแƒ”แƒฅแƒขแƒ˜แƒ•แƒแƒก, แƒ แƒแƒ›แƒ”แƒšแƒ˜แƒช แƒ›แƒ˜แƒ–แƒœแƒแƒ“ แƒ˜แƒกแƒแƒฎแƒแƒ•แƒก แƒ’แƒแƒแƒคแƒแƒ แƒ—แƒแƒ•แƒแƒก แƒ’แƒแƒ’แƒ”แƒ‘แƒ แƒ˜แƒฃแƒ แƒ˜แƒ“แƒ˜แƒฃแƒšแƒ˜ แƒชแƒœแƒ”แƒ‘แƒ”แƒ‘แƒ˜แƒกแƒ แƒ“แƒ แƒ›แƒแƒ—แƒ˜ แƒžแƒ แƒแƒฅแƒขแƒ˜แƒ™แƒฃแƒšแƒ˜ แƒ’แƒแƒ›แƒแƒงแƒ”แƒœแƒ”แƒ‘แƒ˜แƒก แƒจแƒ”แƒกแƒแƒฎแƒ”แƒ‘.


แƒฉแƒ•แƒ”แƒœแƒ˜ แƒ›แƒ˜แƒ–แƒแƒœแƒ˜แƒ แƒ™แƒ แƒ˜แƒขแƒ˜แƒ™แƒฃแƒšแƒ˜ แƒแƒ–แƒ แƒแƒ•แƒœแƒ”แƒ‘แƒ˜แƒก แƒ’แƒแƒœแƒ•แƒ˜แƒ—แƒแƒ แƒ”แƒ‘แƒ แƒ“แƒ แƒกแƒแƒ›แƒแƒ แƒ—แƒšแƒ”แƒ‘แƒ แƒ˜แƒ•แƒ˜ แƒแƒœแƒแƒšแƒ˜แƒ–แƒ˜แƒก แƒงแƒแƒ•แƒšแƒ˜แƒกแƒ›แƒแƒ›แƒชแƒ•แƒ”แƒšแƒ˜ แƒ›แƒ˜แƒ“แƒ’แƒแƒ›แƒ˜แƒก แƒแƒ“แƒ•แƒแƒ™แƒแƒขแƒ˜แƒ แƒ”แƒ‘แƒ. โ€žแƒฅแƒ”แƒ˜แƒกแƒ˜ แƒแƒจแƒจ-แƒ“แƒแƒœโ€œ แƒ˜แƒ™แƒ•แƒšแƒ”แƒ•แƒก แƒกแƒแƒ›แƒแƒ แƒ—แƒšแƒ˜แƒก แƒกแƒฎแƒ•แƒแƒ“แƒแƒกแƒฎแƒ•แƒ แƒ›แƒ˜แƒ›แƒแƒ แƒ—แƒฃแƒšแƒ”แƒ‘แƒ”แƒ‘แƒก, แƒ›แƒแƒ— แƒจแƒแƒ แƒ˜แƒก แƒกแƒแƒฎแƒ”แƒšแƒจแƒ”แƒ™แƒ แƒฃแƒšแƒ”แƒ‘แƒ แƒกแƒแƒ›แƒแƒ แƒ—แƒแƒšแƒก, แƒกแƒแƒ›แƒแƒฅแƒแƒšแƒแƒฅแƒ แƒกแƒแƒžแƒ แƒแƒชแƒ”แƒกแƒ แƒกแƒแƒ›แƒแƒ แƒ—แƒแƒšแƒฌแƒแƒ แƒ›แƒแƒ”แƒ‘แƒแƒก, แƒ˜แƒœแƒขแƒ”แƒšแƒ”แƒฅแƒขแƒฃแƒแƒšแƒฃแƒ  แƒกแƒแƒ™แƒฃแƒ—แƒ แƒ”แƒ‘แƒแƒก, แƒ™แƒแƒ แƒžแƒแƒ แƒแƒขแƒ˜แƒฃแƒš แƒกแƒแƒ™แƒ˜แƒ—แƒฎแƒ”แƒ‘แƒก แƒ“แƒ แƒกแƒฎแƒ•แƒ. แƒ แƒแƒ“แƒ”แƒกแƒแƒช แƒฉแƒ•แƒ”แƒœ แƒ’แƒแƒœแƒ•แƒ˜แƒฎแƒ˜แƒšแƒแƒ•แƒ— แƒจแƒ”แƒ”แƒ แƒ—แƒ”แƒ‘แƒฃแƒšแƒ˜ แƒจแƒขแƒแƒขแƒ”แƒ‘แƒ˜แƒ“แƒแƒœ แƒชแƒœแƒแƒ‘แƒ˜แƒš แƒกแƒแƒฅแƒ›แƒ”แƒ”แƒ‘แƒก, แƒ›แƒแƒ’แƒ˜แƒฌแƒแƒ“แƒ”แƒ‘แƒ— แƒฉแƒแƒ”แƒ แƒ—แƒแƒ— แƒžแƒ แƒแƒ“แƒฃแƒฅแƒขแƒ˜แƒฃแƒš แƒ“แƒ˜แƒกแƒ™แƒฃแƒกแƒ˜แƒ”แƒ‘แƒจแƒ˜ แƒ“แƒ แƒ’แƒแƒ˜แƒ—แƒ•แƒแƒšแƒ˜แƒกแƒฌแƒ˜แƒœแƒแƒ— แƒžแƒแƒขแƒ”แƒœแƒชแƒ˜แƒฃแƒ แƒ˜ แƒจแƒ”แƒ“แƒ”แƒ’แƒ”แƒ‘แƒ˜ แƒ“แƒ แƒ’แƒแƒ™แƒ•แƒ”แƒ—แƒ˜แƒšแƒ”แƒ‘แƒ˜, แƒ แƒแƒช แƒจแƒ”แƒ˜แƒซแƒšแƒ”แƒ‘แƒ แƒ•แƒ˜แƒกแƒฌแƒแƒ•แƒšแƒแƒ— แƒกแƒแƒฅแƒแƒ แƒ—แƒ•แƒ”แƒšแƒแƒก แƒกแƒแƒ›แƒแƒ แƒ—แƒšแƒ”แƒ‘แƒ แƒ˜แƒ•แƒ˜ แƒกแƒ˜แƒกแƒขแƒ”แƒ›แƒ˜แƒก แƒ’แƒแƒซแƒšแƒ˜แƒ”แƒ แƒ”แƒ‘แƒ˜แƒกแƒแƒ—แƒ•แƒ˜แƒก.


๐Ÿš€ แƒ“แƒฆแƒ”แƒ•แƒแƒœแƒ“แƒ”แƒšแƒ˜ แƒžแƒ แƒแƒ‘แƒšแƒ”แƒ›แƒ: แƒกแƒแƒ แƒฉแƒ”แƒšแƒ”แƒ‘แƒ˜แƒก แƒ›แƒ˜แƒฆแƒ”แƒ‘แƒ แƒกแƒแƒฅแƒแƒ แƒ—แƒ•แƒ”แƒšแƒแƒก แƒกแƒแƒกแƒแƒ›แƒแƒ แƒ—แƒšแƒแƒ”แƒ‘แƒจแƒ˜


แƒฅแƒแƒ แƒ—แƒฃแƒš แƒกแƒแƒกแƒแƒ›แƒแƒ แƒ—แƒšแƒแƒ”แƒ‘แƒจแƒ˜ แƒกแƒแƒ›แƒแƒฅแƒแƒšแƒแƒฅแƒ แƒกแƒแƒ แƒฉแƒ”แƒšแƒ˜แƒก แƒจแƒ”แƒขแƒแƒœแƒ แƒจแƒ”แƒ˜แƒซแƒšแƒ”แƒ‘แƒ แƒ แƒ—แƒฃแƒšแƒ˜ แƒแƒ›แƒแƒชแƒแƒœแƒ แƒ˜แƒงแƒแƒก. แƒžแƒ แƒแƒฅแƒขแƒ˜แƒ™แƒแƒจแƒ˜, แƒแƒ“แƒ•แƒแƒ™แƒแƒขแƒ”แƒ‘แƒ˜ แƒฎแƒจแƒ˜แƒ แƒแƒ“ แƒแƒฌแƒงแƒ“แƒ”แƒ‘แƒ˜แƒแƒœ แƒ›แƒœแƒ˜แƒจแƒ•แƒœแƒ”แƒšแƒแƒ•แƒแƒœ แƒกแƒ˜แƒ แƒ—แƒฃแƒšแƒ”แƒ”แƒ‘แƒก แƒกแƒแƒกแƒแƒ›แƒแƒ แƒ—แƒšแƒ แƒžแƒ แƒแƒชแƒ”แƒกแƒ˜แƒก แƒ“แƒแƒฌแƒงแƒ”แƒ‘แƒ˜แƒก แƒ›แƒชแƒ“แƒ”แƒšแƒแƒ‘แƒ˜แƒกแƒแƒก. แƒ แƒแƒ›แƒ“แƒ”แƒœแƒ˜แƒ›แƒ” แƒคแƒแƒฅแƒขแƒแƒ แƒ˜ แƒฎแƒ”แƒšแƒก แƒฃแƒฌแƒงแƒแƒ‘แƒก แƒžแƒ แƒแƒชแƒ”แƒกแƒ˜แƒก แƒกแƒ˜แƒ แƒ—แƒฃแƒšแƒ”แƒก, แƒ›แƒแƒ— แƒจแƒแƒ แƒ˜แƒก แƒคแƒแƒ แƒ›แƒแƒšแƒฃแƒ แƒ˜ แƒ›แƒแƒ—แƒฎแƒแƒ•แƒœแƒ”แƒ‘แƒ˜แƒก แƒ›แƒ™แƒแƒชแƒ แƒ˜ แƒ“แƒแƒชแƒ•แƒ แƒ“แƒ แƒกแƒแƒกแƒแƒ›แƒแƒ แƒ—แƒšแƒแƒก แƒแƒฅแƒขแƒ˜แƒฃแƒ แƒ˜ แƒ แƒแƒšแƒ˜ แƒกแƒแƒžแƒ แƒแƒชแƒ”แƒกแƒ แƒกแƒแƒคแƒฃแƒซแƒ•แƒšแƒ”แƒ‘แƒ˜แƒ— แƒกแƒแƒฉแƒ˜แƒ•แƒ แƒ”แƒ‘แƒ˜แƒก แƒฃแƒแƒ แƒงแƒแƒคแƒแƒจแƒ˜.


แƒ”แƒ แƒ—-แƒ”แƒ แƒ—แƒ˜ แƒ›แƒ—แƒแƒ•แƒแƒ แƒ˜ แƒ“แƒแƒ‘แƒ แƒ™แƒแƒšแƒ”แƒ‘แƒ, แƒ แƒแƒ›แƒ”แƒšแƒกแƒแƒช แƒแƒฌแƒงแƒ“แƒ”แƒ‘แƒ˜แƒแƒœ แƒžแƒ แƒแƒชแƒ”แƒกแƒ˜แƒก แƒ›แƒแƒœแƒแƒฌแƒ˜แƒšแƒ”แƒ”แƒ‘แƒ˜, แƒแƒ แƒ˜แƒก แƒ˜แƒก, แƒ แƒแƒ› แƒกแƒแƒกแƒแƒ›แƒแƒ แƒ—แƒšแƒแƒ”แƒ‘แƒ˜ แƒ›แƒ™แƒแƒชแƒ แƒแƒ“ แƒ’แƒแƒœแƒ›แƒแƒ แƒขแƒแƒ•แƒ”แƒœ แƒกแƒแƒ›แƒแƒฅแƒแƒšแƒแƒฅแƒ แƒกแƒแƒžแƒ แƒแƒชแƒ”แƒกแƒ แƒ™แƒแƒ“แƒ”แƒฅแƒกแƒ˜แƒ— แƒ“แƒแƒ“แƒ’แƒ”แƒœแƒ˜แƒš แƒคแƒแƒ แƒ›แƒแƒšแƒฃแƒ  แƒ›แƒแƒ—แƒฎแƒแƒ•แƒœแƒ”แƒ‘แƒก. แƒแƒ› แƒ›แƒแƒ—แƒฎแƒแƒ•แƒœแƒ”แƒ‘แƒ˜แƒ“แƒแƒœ แƒœแƒ”แƒ‘แƒ˜แƒกแƒ›แƒ˜แƒ”แƒ แƒ›แƒ แƒ’แƒแƒ“แƒแƒฎแƒ แƒแƒ›, แƒ˜แƒฅแƒœแƒ”แƒ‘แƒ แƒ”แƒก แƒคแƒแƒฅแƒขแƒ”แƒ‘แƒ˜แƒก แƒ’แƒแƒœแƒชแƒฎแƒแƒ“แƒ”แƒ‘แƒแƒจแƒ˜, แƒ™แƒแƒœแƒแƒœแƒ˜แƒก แƒ’แƒแƒ›แƒแƒงแƒ”แƒœแƒ”แƒ‘แƒแƒจแƒ˜ แƒ—แƒฃ แƒกแƒแƒ แƒฉแƒ”แƒšแƒ˜แƒก แƒกแƒแƒคแƒฃแƒซแƒ•แƒšแƒ”แƒ‘แƒจแƒ˜, แƒจแƒ”แƒ˜แƒซแƒšแƒ”แƒ‘แƒ แƒ’แƒแƒ›แƒแƒ˜แƒฌแƒ•แƒ˜แƒแƒก แƒกแƒแƒ แƒฉแƒ”แƒšแƒ˜แƒก แƒฌแƒแƒ แƒ›แƒแƒ”แƒ‘แƒแƒจแƒ˜ แƒ›แƒ˜แƒฆแƒ”แƒ‘แƒแƒ–แƒ” แƒฃแƒแƒ แƒ˜แƒก แƒ—แƒฅแƒ›แƒ. แƒ”แƒก แƒฎแƒ˜แƒกแƒขแƒ˜ แƒคแƒแƒ แƒ›แƒแƒšแƒแƒ‘แƒ แƒ›แƒซแƒ˜แƒ›แƒ” แƒขแƒ•แƒ˜แƒ แƒ—แƒแƒ“ แƒแƒฅแƒ”แƒ•แƒก แƒ›แƒแƒ—, แƒ•แƒ˜แƒœแƒช แƒชแƒ“แƒ˜แƒšแƒแƒ‘แƒก แƒกแƒแƒ™แƒฃแƒ—แƒแƒ แƒ˜ แƒ“แƒแƒ แƒฆแƒ•แƒ”แƒฃแƒšแƒ˜ แƒฃแƒคแƒšแƒ”แƒ‘แƒ˜แƒก แƒกแƒแƒกแƒแƒ›แƒแƒ แƒ—แƒšแƒ แƒฌแƒ”แƒกแƒ˜แƒ— แƒ“แƒแƒชแƒ•แƒแƒก แƒ“แƒ แƒ™แƒ˜แƒ“แƒ”แƒ• แƒฃแƒคแƒ แƒ แƒแƒ›แƒซแƒแƒคแƒ แƒ”แƒ‘แƒก แƒกแƒแƒ›แƒแƒ แƒ—แƒšแƒ”แƒ‘แƒ แƒ˜แƒ•แƒ˜ แƒกแƒ˜แƒกแƒขแƒ”แƒ›แƒ˜แƒก แƒ˜แƒกแƒ”แƒ“แƒแƒช แƒ™แƒแƒ›แƒžแƒšแƒ”แƒฅแƒกแƒฃแƒ  แƒ‘แƒฃแƒœแƒ”แƒ‘แƒแƒก.


แƒกแƒแƒกแƒแƒ›แƒแƒ แƒ—แƒšแƒแƒ”แƒ‘แƒ˜แƒก แƒแƒฅแƒขแƒ˜แƒฃแƒ แƒ˜ แƒ›แƒ˜แƒ“แƒ’แƒแƒ›แƒ แƒกแƒแƒžแƒ แƒแƒชแƒ”แƒกแƒ แƒ›แƒแƒ—แƒฎแƒแƒ•แƒœแƒ”แƒ‘แƒ—แƒแƒœ แƒจแƒ”แƒกแƒแƒ‘แƒแƒ›แƒ˜แƒกแƒแƒ‘แƒ˜แƒก แƒ—แƒแƒแƒ‘แƒแƒ–แƒ” แƒฎแƒจแƒ˜แƒ แƒแƒ“ แƒ˜แƒฌแƒ•แƒ”แƒ•แƒก แƒกแƒแƒฅแƒ›แƒ˜แƒก แƒ’แƒแƒœแƒฎแƒ˜แƒšแƒ•แƒแƒ–แƒ” แƒฃแƒแƒ แƒก. แƒแƒ›แƒ˜แƒขแƒแƒ›, แƒ›แƒแƒจแƒ˜แƒœแƒแƒช แƒ™แƒ˜, แƒ—แƒฃ แƒซแƒ˜แƒ แƒ˜แƒ—แƒแƒ“แƒ˜ แƒคแƒแƒฅแƒขแƒ”แƒ‘แƒ˜ แƒแƒœ แƒกแƒแƒ›แƒแƒ แƒ—แƒšแƒ”แƒ‘แƒ แƒ˜แƒ•แƒ˜ แƒแƒ แƒ’แƒฃแƒ›แƒ”แƒœแƒขแƒ”แƒ‘แƒ˜ แƒ“แƒแƒ›แƒแƒฏแƒ”แƒ แƒ”แƒ‘แƒ”แƒšแƒ˜แƒ, แƒกแƒแƒ แƒฉแƒ”แƒšแƒ˜ แƒจแƒ”แƒ˜แƒซแƒšแƒ”แƒ‘แƒ แƒฃแƒแƒ แƒงแƒแƒคแƒ˜แƒšแƒ˜ แƒ˜แƒฅแƒœแƒแƒก แƒ›แƒฎแƒแƒšแƒแƒ“ แƒžแƒ แƒแƒชแƒ”แƒ“แƒฃแƒ แƒฃแƒšแƒ˜ แƒกแƒแƒคแƒฃแƒซแƒ•แƒšแƒ”แƒ‘แƒ˜แƒ—. แƒกแƒแƒ—แƒแƒœแƒแƒ“แƒ แƒกแƒแƒžแƒ แƒแƒชแƒ”แƒกแƒ แƒ“แƒ”แƒขแƒแƒšแƒ”แƒ‘แƒ˜แƒก แƒ“แƒ แƒœแƒ˜แƒฃแƒแƒœแƒกแƒ”แƒ‘แƒ˜แƒก แƒ›แƒ™แƒแƒชแƒ แƒแƒ“ แƒ“แƒแƒชแƒ•แƒแƒ–แƒ” แƒžแƒแƒกแƒฃแƒฎแƒ˜แƒกแƒ›แƒ’แƒ”แƒ‘แƒšแƒแƒ‘แƒ แƒ”แƒ™แƒ˜แƒกแƒ แƒ”แƒ‘แƒแƒ— แƒ“แƒแƒ•แƒ˜แƒก แƒ›แƒฎแƒแƒ แƒ”แƒ”แƒ‘แƒก, แƒ แƒแƒ›แƒšแƒ”แƒ‘แƒ˜แƒช แƒจแƒ”แƒกแƒแƒซแƒšแƒแƒ แƒแƒ แƒแƒฎแƒ”แƒšแƒกแƒแƒงแƒ แƒ”แƒš แƒ›แƒ“แƒ’แƒแƒ›แƒแƒ แƒ”แƒแƒ‘แƒแƒจแƒ˜ แƒแƒฆแƒ›แƒแƒฉแƒœแƒ“แƒœแƒ”แƒœ แƒ แƒ—แƒฃแƒšแƒ˜ แƒกแƒแƒ™แƒแƒœแƒแƒœแƒ›แƒ“แƒ”แƒ‘แƒšแƒ แƒ‘แƒแƒ–แƒ˜แƒก แƒจแƒ”แƒ–แƒฆแƒฃแƒ“แƒฃแƒšแƒ˜ แƒ’แƒแƒ’แƒ”แƒ‘แƒ˜แƒก แƒ’แƒแƒ›แƒ. แƒแƒ› แƒกแƒคแƒ”แƒ แƒแƒ”แƒ‘แƒจแƒ˜ แƒœแƒ”แƒ‘แƒ˜แƒกแƒ›แƒ˜แƒ”แƒ แƒ›แƒ แƒ’แƒแƒฃแƒ แƒ™แƒ•แƒ”แƒ•แƒšแƒแƒ‘แƒแƒ› แƒแƒœ แƒจแƒ”แƒฃแƒกแƒแƒ‘แƒแƒ›แƒแƒ‘แƒแƒ›, แƒจแƒ”แƒ˜แƒซแƒšแƒ”แƒ‘แƒ, แƒ’แƒแƒ›แƒแƒ˜แƒฌแƒ•แƒ˜แƒแƒก แƒกแƒแƒ แƒฉแƒ”แƒšแƒ˜แƒก แƒฃแƒแƒ แƒงแƒแƒคแƒ. แƒ›แƒฎแƒแƒ แƒ”แƒ”แƒ‘แƒ›แƒ แƒฃแƒœแƒ“แƒ แƒ’แƒแƒ˜แƒแƒ แƒแƒœ แƒ™แƒแƒ›แƒžแƒšแƒ”แƒฅแƒกแƒฃแƒ แƒ˜ แƒกแƒแƒ›แƒแƒ แƒ—แƒšแƒ”แƒ‘แƒ แƒ˜แƒ•แƒ˜ แƒคแƒ˜แƒšแƒขแƒ แƒ˜ แƒ“แƒ แƒฃแƒ–แƒ แƒฃแƒœแƒ•แƒ”แƒšแƒงแƒแƒœ แƒ›แƒแƒ—แƒ˜ แƒกแƒแƒฉแƒ˜แƒ•แƒ แƒ”แƒ‘แƒ˜แƒก แƒฌแƒแƒ แƒ“แƒ’แƒ”แƒœแƒ แƒ˜แƒกแƒ”, แƒ แƒแƒ› แƒ“แƒแƒแƒ™แƒ›แƒแƒงแƒแƒคแƒ˜แƒšแƒแƒœ แƒกแƒแƒ›แƒแƒฅแƒแƒšแƒแƒฅแƒ แƒกแƒแƒžแƒ แƒแƒชแƒ”แƒกแƒ แƒ™แƒแƒ“แƒ”แƒฅแƒกแƒ˜แƒ— แƒ’แƒแƒœแƒกแƒแƒ–แƒฆแƒ•แƒ แƒฃแƒšแƒ˜ แƒ›แƒ™แƒแƒชแƒ แƒ˜ แƒ›แƒแƒ—แƒฎแƒแƒ•แƒœแƒ”แƒ‘แƒ˜.


แƒ แƒแƒ›แƒ“แƒ”แƒœแƒ˜แƒ›แƒ” แƒกแƒแƒ˜แƒœแƒขแƒ”แƒ แƒ”แƒกแƒ แƒ›แƒ˜แƒ–แƒ”แƒ–แƒ˜ แƒžแƒ แƒแƒฅแƒขแƒ˜แƒ™แƒ˜แƒ“แƒแƒœ, แƒ แƒแƒ›แƒ”แƒšแƒ—แƒ แƒ’แƒแƒ›แƒแƒช แƒกแƒแƒ แƒฉแƒ”แƒšแƒ˜แƒก แƒฌแƒแƒ แƒ›แƒแƒ”แƒ‘แƒแƒจแƒ˜ แƒ›แƒ˜แƒฆแƒ”แƒ‘แƒแƒ–แƒ” แƒฃแƒแƒ แƒ˜ แƒ˜แƒฅแƒœแƒ แƒœแƒแƒ—แƒฅแƒ•แƒแƒ›แƒ˜:


  • แƒ”แƒ แƒ— แƒกแƒแƒฅแƒ›แƒ”แƒจแƒ˜ แƒกแƒแƒกแƒแƒ›แƒแƒ แƒ—แƒšแƒแƒ› แƒแƒ  แƒ›แƒ˜แƒ˜แƒฆแƒ แƒกแƒแƒ แƒฉแƒ”แƒšแƒ˜ แƒฌแƒแƒ แƒ›แƒแƒ”แƒ‘แƒแƒจแƒ˜ แƒ˜แƒ›แƒ˜แƒก แƒ’แƒแƒ›แƒ, แƒ แƒแƒ› แƒ“แƒแƒ•แƒ˜แƒก แƒกแƒแƒ’แƒœแƒ˜แƒก แƒคแƒแƒกแƒ˜ แƒ’แƒแƒœแƒกแƒแƒ–แƒฆแƒ•แƒ แƒฃแƒšแƒ˜ แƒ˜แƒงแƒ แƒ›แƒ”แƒแƒกแƒ”แƒ“แƒ”แƒ‘แƒ˜แƒก แƒกแƒ˜แƒ–แƒฃแƒกแƒขแƒ˜แƒ—, แƒกแƒแƒกแƒแƒ›แƒแƒ แƒ—แƒšแƒแƒก แƒ™แƒ˜, แƒ แƒแƒ›แƒ”แƒšแƒ›แƒแƒช แƒ•แƒ”แƒ  แƒจแƒ”แƒแƒ›แƒฉแƒœแƒ˜แƒ แƒ›แƒ”แƒแƒกแƒ”แƒ“แƒ˜แƒก แƒ’แƒแƒ›แƒแƒ›แƒงแƒแƒคแƒ˜ แƒฌแƒ”แƒ แƒขแƒ˜แƒšแƒ˜, แƒ”แƒ’แƒแƒœแƒ, แƒ แƒแƒ› แƒกแƒแƒกแƒแƒ แƒฉแƒ”แƒšแƒ แƒ›แƒแƒ—แƒฎแƒแƒ•แƒœแƒ แƒ“แƒ แƒ“แƒแƒ•แƒ˜แƒก แƒกแƒแƒ’แƒœแƒ˜แƒก แƒคแƒแƒกแƒ˜ แƒ™แƒแƒšแƒแƒกแƒแƒšแƒฃแƒ แƒแƒ“ แƒ’แƒแƒœแƒกแƒฎแƒ•แƒแƒ•แƒ“แƒ”แƒ‘แƒ แƒ”แƒ แƒ—แƒ›แƒแƒœแƒ”แƒ—แƒ˜แƒกแƒแƒ’แƒแƒœ.

  • แƒฎแƒจแƒ˜แƒ แƒแƒ“ แƒกแƒแƒกแƒแƒ›แƒแƒ แƒ—แƒšแƒแƒ”แƒ‘แƒ˜ แƒกแƒแƒ แƒฉแƒ”แƒšแƒ”แƒ‘แƒก แƒแƒ  แƒ˜แƒฆแƒ”แƒ‘แƒ”แƒœ แƒ˜แƒ›แƒ˜แƒขแƒแƒ›, แƒ แƒแƒ› แƒกแƒแƒ“แƒแƒ•แƒ แƒฎแƒ”แƒšแƒจแƒ”แƒ™แƒ แƒฃแƒšแƒ”แƒ‘แƒ˜แƒก แƒ—แƒแƒแƒ‘แƒแƒ–แƒ” แƒ›แƒฎแƒแƒ แƒ” แƒกแƒแƒกแƒแƒ แƒฉแƒ”แƒšแƒ แƒ›แƒแƒ—แƒฎแƒแƒ•แƒœแƒแƒจแƒ˜แƒช แƒแƒ  แƒ›แƒ˜แƒฃแƒ—แƒ˜แƒ—แƒ”แƒ‘แƒก.

  • แƒ›แƒ”แƒแƒ แƒ”แƒก แƒ›แƒฎแƒ แƒ˜แƒ•, แƒจแƒ”แƒ˜แƒซแƒšแƒ”แƒ‘แƒ แƒกแƒแƒกแƒแƒ›แƒแƒ แƒ—แƒšแƒแƒ› แƒกแƒแƒ แƒฉแƒ”แƒšแƒ˜ แƒฌแƒแƒ แƒ›แƒแƒ”แƒ‘แƒแƒจแƒ˜ แƒแƒ  แƒ›แƒ˜แƒ˜แƒฆแƒแƒก แƒ˜แƒ›แƒ˜แƒก แƒ’แƒแƒ›แƒ, แƒ แƒแƒ› แƒ›แƒฎแƒแƒ แƒ” แƒ˜แƒ—แƒฎแƒแƒ•แƒก แƒฃแƒชแƒ˜แƒšแƒแƒ“ แƒ‘แƒแƒ—แƒ˜แƒšแƒ˜ แƒฎแƒ”แƒšแƒจแƒ”แƒ™แƒ แƒฃแƒšแƒ”แƒ‘แƒ˜แƒก แƒ‘แƒแƒ—แƒ˜แƒšแƒแƒ“ แƒแƒฆแƒ˜แƒแƒ แƒ”แƒ‘แƒแƒก, แƒ แƒแƒกแƒแƒช แƒฃแƒ–แƒ”แƒœแƒแƒ”แƒกแƒ˜ แƒกแƒแƒกแƒแƒ›แƒแƒ แƒ—แƒšแƒแƒก แƒ“แƒแƒ›แƒ™แƒ•แƒ˜แƒ“แƒ แƒ”แƒ‘แƒฃแƒšแƒ˜ แƒžแƒ แƒแƒฅแƒขแƒ˜แƒ™แƒ˜แƒ— แƒกแƒแƒกแƒแƒ แƒฉแƒ”แƒšแƒ แƒ›แƒแƒ—แƒฎแƒแƒ•แƒœแƒ˜แƒก แƒ“แƒแƒงแƒ”แƒœแƒ”แƒ‘แƒ แƒแƒ  แƒญแƒ˜แƒ แƒ“แƒ”แƒ‘แƒ แƒ“แƒ แƒกแƒแƒ™แƒ›แƒแƒ แƒ˜แƒกแƒ˜แƒ แƒคแƒแƒฅแƒขแƒแƒ“ แƒ›แƒ˜แƒ—แƒ˜แƒ—แƒ”แƒ‘แƒ.

  • แƒแƒ›แƒฎแƒแƒœแƒแƒ’แƒแƒ‘แƒ˜แƒก แƒ“แƒแƒ•แƒ”แƒ‘แƒจแƒ˜ แƒกแƒแƒกแƒแƒ›แƒแƒ แƒ—แƒšแƒ แƒแƒ  แƒ˜แƒฆแƒ”แƒ‘แƒก แƒกแƒแƒ แƒฉแƒ”แƒšแƒก แƒฌแƒแƒ แƒ›แƒแƒ”แƒ‘แƒแƒจแƒ˜ แƒ—แƒฃแƒ™แƒ˜ แƒ›แƒแƒžแƒแƒกแƒฃแƒฎแƒ”แƒ“ แƒแƒ›แƒฎแƒแƒœแƒแƒ’แƒแƒ‘แƒ˜แƒก แƒแƒ‘แƒกแƒแƒšแƒฃแƒขแƒฃแƒ แƒแƒ“ แƒงแƒ•แƒ”แƒšแƒ แƒฌแƒ”แƒ•แƒ แƒ˜ แƒแƒ  แƒแƒ แƒ˜แƒก แƒ“แƒแƒกแƒแƒฎแƒ”แƒšแƒ”แƒ‘แƒฃแƒšแƒ˜, แƒ›แƒ˜แƒฃแƒฎแƒ”แƒ“แƒแƒ•แƒแƒ“ แƒ˜แƒ›แƒ˜แƒกแƒ, แƒ แƒแƒ› แƒ›แƒแƒกแƒแƒ แƒฉแƒ”แƒšแƒ˜แƒก แƒžแƒ แƒ”แƒ แƒแƒ’แƒแƒขแƒ˜แƒ•แƒแƒ แƒ’แƒแƒœแƒกแƒแƒ–แƒฆแƒ•แƒ แƒแƒก แƒ›แƒแƒžแƒแƒกแƒฃแƒฎแƒ”แƒ—แƒ แƒฌแƒ แƒ”.

  • แƒ”แƒ แƒ— แƒกแƒแƒฅแƒ›แƒ”แƒจแƒ˜ แƒกแƒแƒกแƒแƒ›แƒแƒ แƒ—แƒšแƒแƒ› แƒแƒ แƒ˜ แƒฌแƒšแƒ˜แƒก แƒฌแƒแƒ แƒ›แƒแƒ”แƒ‘แƒแƒจแƒ˜ แƒ›แƒ˜แƒฆแƒ”แƒ‘แƒฃแƒšแƒ˜ แƒกแƒแƒ แƒฉแƒ”แƒšแƒ˜ แƒ“แƒแƒขแƒแƒ•แƒ แƒ’แƒแƒœแƒฃแƒฎแƒ˜แƒšแƒ•แƒ”แƒšแƒ˜ แƒ˜แƒ›แƒ˜แƒก แƒ’แƒแƒ›แƒ, แƒ แƒแƒ› แƒ›แƒฎแƒแƒ แƒ” แƒแƒงแƒ”แƒœแƒ”แƒ‘แƒ“แƒ แƒแƒฆแƒ˜แƒแƒ แƒ”แƒ‘แƒ˜แƒ— แƒ›แƒแƒ—แƒฎแƒแƒ•แƒœแƒแƒก, แƒ แƒ˜แƒกแƒ˜ แƒ˜แƒœแƒขแƒ”แƒ แƒ”แƒกแƒ˜แƒช, แƒกแƒแƒกแƒแƒ›แƒแƒ แƒ—แƒšแƒแƒก แƒแƒ–แƒ แƒ˜แƒ—, แƒ›แƒแƒก แƒแƒ  แƒ’แƒแƒแƒฉแƒœแƒ“แƒ. แƒ›แƒแƒ—แƒฎแƒแƒ•แƒœแƒ แƒ›แƒ“แƒ’แƒแƒ›แƒแƒ แƒ”แƒแƒ‘แƒ“แƒ แƒฃแƒซแƒ แƒแƒ•แƒ˜ แƒฅแƒแƒœแƒ”แƒ‘แƒ˜แƒก แƒ•แƒ˜แƒœแƒ“แƒ˜แƒ™แƒแƒชแƒ˜แƒแƒจแƒ˜.

  • แƒฎแƒจแƒ˜แƒ แƒแƒ“ แƒกแƒแƒกแƒแƒ›แƒแƒ แƒ—แƒšแƒแƒ”แƒ‘แƒ˜ แƒฌแƒแƒ แƒ›แƒแƒ”แƒ‘แƒแƒจแƒ˜ แƒแƒ  แƒ˜แƒฆแƒ”แƒ‘แƒ”แƒœ แƒกแƒแƒ แƒฉแƒ”แƒšแƒ”แƒ‘แƒก แƒ“แƒ แƒ›แƒ˜แƒฃแƒ—แƒ˜แƒ—แƒ”แƒ‘แƒ”แƒœ, แƒ แƒแƒ› แƒ›แƒฎแƒแƒ แƒ”แƒ› โ€žแƒ’แƒแƒ แƒ™แƒ•แƒ”แƒ•แƒ˜แƒ—โ€œ แƒฃแƒœแƒ“แƒ แƒฉแƒแƒ›แƒแƒแƒงแƒแƒšแƒ˜แƒ‘แƒแƒก แƒคแƒแƒฅแƒขแƒแƒ‘แƒ แƒ˜แƒ•แƒ˜ แƒ’แƒแƒ แƒ”แƒ›แƒแƒ”แƒ‘แƒ”แƒ‘แƒ˜, แƒ—แƒฃแƒ›แƒชแƒ แƒ™แƒแƒœแƒ™แƒ แƒ”แƒขแƒฃแƒšแƒแƒ“ แƒแƒ  แƒแƒ แƒ˜แƒก แƒœแƒแƒ—แƒ”แƒšแƒ˜ แƒ—แƒฃ แƒ แƒแƒก แƒ’แƒฃแƒšแƒ˜แƒกแƒฎแƒ›แƒแƒ‘แƒก แƒกแƒแƒกแƒแƒ›แƒแƒ แƒ—แƒšแƒ.

โš–๏ธ Dioguardi v. Durning, 139 F.2d 774 (1944) ๐Ÿค–


แƒแƒ›แƒ”แƒ แƒ˜แƒ™แƒฃแƒšแƒ˜ แƒกแƒแƒฅแƒ›แƒ” Dioguardi v. Durning แƒแƒ แƒ˜แƒก แƒกแƒแƒžแƒ แƒแƒชแƒ”แƒกแƒ แƒกแƒแƒคแƒฃแƒซแƒ•แƒšแƒ”แƒ‘แƒ˜แƒ— แƒกแƒแƒ แƒฉแƒ”แƒšแƒ˜แƒก แƒฌแƒแƒ แƒ›แƒแƒ”แƒ‘แƒแƒจแƒ˜ แƒ›แƒ˜แƒฆแƒ”แƒ‘แƒแƒ” แƒฃแƒแƒ แƒ˜แƒก แƒ™แƒšแƒแƒกแƒ˜แƒ™แƒฃแƒ แƒ˜ แƒ›แƒแƒ’แƒแƒšแƒ˜แƒ—แƒ˜. แƒแƒ› แƒกแƒแƒฅแƒ›แƒ”แƒจแƒ˜ แƒ›แƒแƒกแƒแƒ แƒฉแƒ”แƒšแƒ” Dioguardi-แƒ› แƒกแƒชแƒแƒ“แƒ แƒกแƒแƒ›แƒ™แƒฃแƒ แƒœแƒแƒšแƒ แƒขแƒแƒœแƒ˜แƒ™แƒ˜แƒก แƒจแƒ”แƒขแƒแƒœแƒ แƒ˜แƒขแƒแƒšแƒ˜แƒ˜แƒ“แƒแƒœ แƒแƒจแƒจ-แƒจแƒ˜. แƒ—แƒฃแƒ›แƒชแƒ, แƒ›แƒแƒก แƒ’แƒแƒ แƒ™แƒ•แƒ”แƒฃแƒšแƒ˜ แƒฃแƒ—แƒแƒœแƒฎแƒ›แƒแƒ”แƒ‘แƒ แƒฐแƒฅแƒแƒœแƒ“แƒ แƒ’แƒแƒ›แƒ’แƒ–แƒแƒ•แƒœแƒ—แƒแƒœ แƒ’แƒแƒ“แƒแƒ–แƒ˜แƒ“แƒ•แƒ˜แƒกแƒ—แƒ•แƒ˜แƒก แƒ’แƒแƒ“แƒแƒกแƒแƒฎแƒ“แƒ”แƒšแƒ˜ แƒ—แƒแƒœแƒฎแƒ˜แƒก แƒแƒ“แƒ”แƒœแƒแƒ‘แƒ˜แƒก แƒ—แƒแƒแƒ‘แƒแƒ–แƒ”. แƒจแƒ”แƒ“แƒ”แƒ’แƒแƒ“, แƒœแƒ˜แƒฃ-แƒ˜แƒแƒ แƒ™แƒ˜แƒก แƒ“แƒ”แƒ แƒœแƒ˜แƒœแƒ’แƒ˜แƒก แƒžแƒแƒ แƒขแƒจแƒ˜ แƒกแƒแƒ‘แƒแƒŸแƒ แƒจแƒ”แƒ›แƒ’แƒ แƒแƒ•แƒ”แƒ‘แƒ”แƒšแƒ›แƒ แƒ’แƒแƒแƒฉแƒ”แƒ แƒ แƒขแƒแƒœแƒ˜แƒ™แƒ”แƒ‘แƒ˜ แƒ”แƒ แƒ—แƒ˜ แƒฌแƒšแƒ˜แƒก แƒ’แƒแƒœแƒ›แƒแƒ•แƒšแƒแƒ‘แƒแƒจแƒ˜ แƒ“แƒ แƒจแƒ”แƒ›แƒ“แƒ”แƒ’ แƒ’แƒแƒงแƒ˜แƒ“แƒ แƒ˜แƒกแƒ˜แƒœแƒ˜ แƒกแƒแƒฏแƒแƒ แƒ แƒแƒฃแƒฅแƒชแƒ˜แƒแƒœแƒ–แƒ”, แƒ แƒแƒ’แƒแƒ แƒช แƒแƒ›แƒแƒก แƒคแƒ”แƒ“แƒ”แƒ แƒแƒšแƒฃแƒ แƒ˜ แƒ™แƒแƒœแƒแƒœแƒ˜ แƒ›แƒแƒ˜แƒ—แƒฎแƒแƒ•แƒ“แƒ. แƒ“แƒ˜แƒแƒ’แƒแƒ แƒ“แƒ˜แƒ› แƒ’แƒแƒ“แƒแƒฌแƒงแƒ•แƒ˜แƒขแƒ แƒ”แƒฉแƒ˜แƒ•แƒšแƒ แƒกแƒแƒ‘แƒแƒŸแƒแƒกแƒแƒ—แƒ•แƒ˜แƒก แƒ“แƒ แƒกแƒแƒ™แƒฃแƒ—แƒแƒ  แƒกแƒแƒ แƒฉแƒ”แƒšแƒจแƒ˜ แƒแƒ แƒ˜ แƒ›แƒแƒ—แƒฎแƒแƒ•แƒœแƒ แƒฌแƒแƒ แƒ›แƒแƒแƒ“แƒ’แƒ˜แƒœแƒ. แƒžแƒ˜แƒ แƒ•แƒ”แƒš แƒ แƒ˜แƒ’แƒจแƒ˜, แƒ›แƒแƒœ แƒ’แƒแƒœแƒแƒชแƒฎแƒแƒ“แƒ, แƒ แƒแƒ› แƒกแƒแƒ‘แƒแƒŸแƒแƒก แƒ—แƒแƒœแƒแƒ›แƒจแƒ แƒแƒ›แƒ”แƒšแƒ›แƒ แƒ‘แƒแƒ—แƒšแƒ”แƒ‘แƒ˜ แƒกแƒฎแƒ•แƒแƒก แƒ›แƒ˜แƒฐแƒงแƒ˜แƒ“แƒ 10 แƒ“แƒแƒšแƒแƒ แƒแƒ“ แƒœแƒแƒ™แƒšแƒ”แƒ‘ แƒคแƒแƒกแƒแƒ“, แƒ•แƒ˜แƒ“แƒ แƒ” แƒ›แƒแƒœ แƒแƒฃแƒฅแƒชแƒ˜แƒแƒœแƒ–แƒ” แƒจแƒ”แƒกแƒ—แƒแƒ•แƒแƒ–แƒ. แƒ›แƒ”แƒแƒ แƒ”, แƒ˜แƒก แƒแƒ›แƒขแƒ™แƒ˜แƒชแƒ”แƒ‘แƒ“แƒ, แƒ แƒแƒ› แƒขแƒแƒœแƒ˜แƒ™แƒ˜แƒก แƒแƒ แƒ˜ แƒงแƒฃแƒ—แƒ˜ แƒ’แƒแƒฅแƒ แƒ แƒ’แƒแƒงแƒ˜แƒ“แƒ•แƒแƒ›แƒ“แƒ” แƒกแƒแƒ›แƒ˜ แƒ™แƒ•แƒ˜แƒ แƒ˜แƒ— แƒแƒ“แƒ แƒ”, แƒจแƒ”แƒกแƒแƒซแƒšแƒแƒ, แƒกแƒแƒ‘แƒแƒŸแƒแƒก แƒฌแƒแƒ แƒ›แƒแƒ›แƒแƒ“แƒ’แƒ”แƒœแƒšแƒ˜แƒก แƒ“แƒแƒฃแƒ“แƒ”แƒ•แƒ แƒแƒ‘แƒ˜แƒก แƒ’แƒแƒ›แƒ.


แƒžแƒ˜แƒ แƒ•แƒ”แƒšแƒ˜ แƒ˜แƒœแƒกแƒขแƒแƒœแƒชแƒ˜แƒ˜แƒก แƒกแƒแƒกแƒแƒ›แƒแƒ แƒ—แƒšแƒแƒ›, แƒ—แƒแƒ•แƒ“แƒแƒžแƒ˜แƒ แƒ•แƒ”แƒšแƒแƒ“, แƒ›แƒแƒกแƒแƒ แƒฉแƒ”แƒšแƒ”แƒก แƒ›แƒแƒกแƒ—แƒฎแƒแƒ•แƒ แƒ“แƒแƒ–แƒฃแƒกแƒขแƒ”แƒ‘แƒฃแƒšแƒ˜ แƒกแƒแƒ แƒฉแƒ”แƒšแƒ˜แƒก แƒฌแƒแƒ แƒ“แƒ’แƒ”แƒœแƒ, แƒ แƒแƒ›แƒ”แƒšแƒจแƒ˜แƒช แƒœแƒแƒ—แƒšแƒแƒ“ แƒฃแƒœแƒ“แƒ แƒงแƒแƒคแƒ˜แƒšแƒ˜แƒงแƒ แƒ’แƒแƒœแƒกแƒแƒ–แƒฆแƒ•แƒ แƒฃแƒšแƒ˜ แƒ›แƒ˜แƒกแƒ˜ แƒ›แƒแƒ—แƒฎแƒแƒ•แƒœแƒ”แƒ‘แƒ˜. แƒ—แƒฃแƒ›แƒชแƒ, แƒ›แƒแƒก แƒจแƒ”แƒ›แƒ“แƒ”แƒ’, แƒ แƒแƒช แƒ“แƒ˜แƒแƒ’แƒแƒ แƒ“แƒ˜แƒ› แƒฌแƒแƒ แƒแƒ“แƒ’แƒ˜แƒœแƒ แƒ“แƒแƒ–แƒฃแƒกแƒขแƒ”แƒ‘แƒฃแƒšแƒ˜ แƒกแƒแƒ แƒฉแƒ”แƒšแƒ˜, แƒกแƒแƒกแƒแƒ›แƒแƒ แƒ—แƒšแƒแƒ› แƒ˜แƒ’แƒ˜ แƒฌแƒแƒ แƒ›แƒแƒ”แƒ‘แƒแƒจแƒ˜ แƒแƒ  แƒ›แƒ˜แƒ˜แƒฆแƒ แƒ˜แƒ› แƒกแƒแƒคแƒฃแƒซแƒ•แƒšแƒ˜แƒ—, แƒ แƒแƒ› แƒ˜แƒ’แƒ˜ แƒ’แƒแƒฃแƒ’แƒ”แƒ‘แƒ แƒแƒ“ แƒ˜แƒงแƒ แƒฉแƒแƒ›แƒแƒงแƒแƒšแƒ˜แƒ‘แƒ”แƒ‘แƒฃแƒšแƒ˜ แƒ“แƒ แƒแƒ  แƒ˜แƒ แƒ™แƒ•แƒ”แƒแƒ“แƒ แƒ—แƒฃ แƒ แƒแƒก แƒ˜แƒ—แƒฎแƒแƒ•แƒ“แƒ แƒ›แƒแƒกแƒแƒ แƒฉแƒ”แƒšแƒ”. แƒแƒ›แƒ˜แƒก แƒจแƒ”แƒ›แƒ“แƒ”แƒ’, แƒ“แƒ˜แƒแƒ’แƒแƒ แƒ“แƒ˜แƒ› แƒ’แƒแƒ“แƒแƒฌแƒงแƒ•แƒ”แƒขแƒ˜แƒšแƒ”แƒ‘แƒ แƒ’แƒแƒแƒกแƒแƒฉแƒ˜แƒ•แƒ แƒ แƒจแƒ”แƒ”แƒ แƒ—แƒ”แƒ‘แƒฃแƒšแƒ˜ แƒจแƒขแƒแƒขแƒ”แƒ‘แƒ˜แƒก แƒกแƒแƒแƒžแƒ”แƒšแƒแƒชแƒ˜แƒ แƒกแƒแƒกแƒแƒ›แƒแƒ แƒ—แƒšแƒแƒจแƒ˜ แƒ“แƒ แƒ›แƒแƒ˜แƒ—แƒฎแƒแƒ•แƒ แƒกแƒแƒ แƒฉแƒ”แƒšแƒ˜แƒก แƒฌแƒแƒ แƒ›แƒแƒ”แƒ‘แƒแƒจแƒ˜ แƒ›แƒ˜แƒฆแƒ”แƒ‘แƒ.


แƒกแƒแƒแƒžแƒ”แƒšแƒแƒชแƒ˜แƒ แƒกแƒแƒกแƒแƒ›แƒแƒ แƒ—แƒšแƒแƒก แƒ’แƒแƒœแƒกแƒแƒฎแƒ˜แƒšแƒ•แƒ”แƒšแƒ˜ แƒ˜แƒงแƒ แƒกแƒแƒ™แƒ˜แƒ—แƒฎแƒ˜ แƒ˜แƒ›แƒ˜แƒก แƒ—แƒแƒแƒ‘แƒแƒ–แƒ”, แƒ—แƒฃ แƒ แƒแƒ›แƒ“แƒ”แƒœแƒแƒ“ แƒ™แƒแƒœแƒแƒœแƒ˜แƒ”แƒ แƒแƒ“ แƒ˜แƒ›แƒแƒฅแƒ›แƒ”แƒ“แƒ แƒ แƒแƒ˜แƒแƒœแƒฃแƒšแƒ›แƒ แƒกแƒแƒกแƒแƒ›แƒแƒ แƒ—แƒšแƒแƒ›, แƒ แƒแƒ“แƒ”แƒกแƒแƒช แƒฌแƒแƒ แƒ›แƒแƒ”แƒ‘แƒแƒจแƒ˜ แƒแƒ  แƒ›แƒ˜แƒ˜แƒฆแƒ แƒ“แƒ˜แƒแƒ’แƒแƒ แƒ“แƒ˜แƒก แƒกแƒแƒ แƒฉแƒ”แƒšแƒ˜. แƒจแƒ”แƒ”แƒ แƒ—แƒ”แƒ‘แƒฃแƒšแƒ˜ แƒจแƒขแƒแƒขแƒ”แƒ‘แƒ˜แƒก แƒกแƒแƒแƒžแƒ”แƒšแƒแƒชแƒ˜แƒ แƒกแƒแƒกแƒแƒ›แƒแƒ แƒ—แƒšแƒแƒ› แƒ’แƒแƒแƒฃแƒฅแƒ›แƒ แƒžแƒ˜แƒ แƒ•แƒ”แƒšแƒ˜ แƒ˜แƒœแƒกแƒขแƒแƒœแƒชแƒ˜แƒ˜แƒก แƒ’แƒแƒ“แƒแƒฌแƒงแƒ•แƒ”แƒขแƒ˜แƒšแƒ”แƒ‘แƒ แƒ“แƒ แƒ“แƒแƒ”แƒ—แƒแƒœแƒฎแƒ›แƒ แƒ“แƒ˜แƒแƒ’แƒแƒ แƒ“แƒ˜แƒก. แƒกแƒแƒแƒžแƒ”แƒšแƒแƒชแƒ˜แƒ แƒกแƒแƒกแƒแƒ›แƒแƒ แƒ—แƒšแƒแƒ› แƒแƒฆแƒœแƒ˜แƒจแƒœแƒ, แƒ แƒแƒ› แƒกแƒแƒ›แƒแƒฅแƒแƒšแƒแƒฅแƒ แƒกแƒแƒžแƒ แƒแƒชแƒ”แƒกแƒ แƒแƒฎแƒแƒšแƒ˜ แƒฌแƒ”แƒกแƒ”แƒ‘แƒ˜แƒก แƒจแƒ”แƒกแƒแƒ‘แƒแƒ›แƒ˜แƒกแƒแƒ“, แƒ›แƒแƒกแƒแƒ แƒฉแƒ”แƒšแƒ”แƒ› แƒกแƒแƒ แƒฉแƒ”แƒšแƒจแƒ˜ แƒšแƒแƒ™แƒแƒœแƒฃแƒ แƒแƒ“ แƒฃแƒœแƒ“แƒ แƒฉแƒแƒ›แƒแƒแƒงแƒแƒšแƒ˜แƒ‘แƒแƒก แƒกแƒแƒ™แƒฃแƒ—แƒแƒ แƒ˜ แƒ›แƒแƒ—แƒฎแƒแƒ•แƒœแƒ, แƒ แƒแƒ›แƒšแƒ˜แƒก แƒกแƒแƒคแƒฃแƒซแƒ•แƒ”แƒšแƒ–แƒ”แƒช แƒ›แƒแƒก แƒ”แƒ™แƒฃแƒ—แƒ•แƒœแƒ˜แƒก แƒกแƒแƒ›แƒแƒ แƒ—แƒšแƒ”แƒ‘แƒ แƒ˜แƒ•แƒ˜ แƒ“แƒแƒชแƒ•แƒ˜แƒก แƒ’แƒแƒ แƒ™แƒ•แƒ”แƒฃแƒšแƒ˜ แƒกแƒแƒจแƒฃแƒแƒšแƒ”แƒ‘แƒ”แƒ‘แƒ˜. แƒกแƒแƒกแƒแƒžแƒแƒ”แƒšแƒแƒชแƒ˜แƒ แƒกแƒแƒกแƒแƒ›แƒแƒ แƒ—แƒšแƒแƒ› แƒ’แƒแƒœแƒ›แƒแƒ แƒขแƒ, แƒ แƒแƒ›, แƒ›แƒ˜แƒฃแƒฎแƒ”แƒ“แƒแƒ•แƒแƒ“ แƒ˜แƒ›แƒ˜แƒกแƒ, แƒ แƒแƒ› แƒ›แƒแƒกแƒแƒ แƒฉแƒ”แƒšแƒ˜แƒก แƒžแƒ แƒ”แƒขแƒ”แƒœแƒ–แƒ˜แƒ”แƒ‘แƒ˜ แƒแƒ  แƒ˜แƒงแƒ แƒฌแƒแƒ แƒ›แƒแƒ“แƒ’แƒ”แƒœแƒ˜แƒšแƒ˜ แƒ›แƒ™แƒแƒคแƒ˜แƒแƒ“, แƒ˜แƒกแƒ˜แƒœแƒ˜ แƒกแƒแƒ™แƒ›แƒแƒ แƒ˜แƒกแƒ˜ แƒ˜แƒงแƒ แƒ˜แƒ›แƒ˜แƒกแƒแƒ—แƒ•แƒ˜แƒก, แƒ แƒแƒ—แƒ แƒกแƒแƒ แƒฉแƒ”แƒšแƒ˜ แƒฌแƒแƒ แƒ›แƒแƒ”แƒ‘แƒแƒจแƒ˜ แƒงแƒแƒคแƒ˜แƒšแƒ˜แƒงแƒ แƒ›แƒ˜แƒฆแƒ”แƒ‘แƒฃแƒšแƒ˜ แƒ“แƒ แƒ’แƒแƒœแƒฎแƒ˜แƒšแƒฃแƒšแƒ˜. แƒฅแƒ•แƒ”แƒ›แƒแƒ— แƒฌแƒแƒ แƒ›แƒแƒ’แƒ˜แƒ“แƒ’แƒ”แƒœแƒ— แƒ“แƒ˜แƒแƒ’แƒฃแƒแƒ แƒ“แƒ˜แƒก แƒ“แƒแƒ–แƒฃแƒกแƒขแƒ”แƒ‘แƒฃแƒšแƒ˜ แƒกแƒแƒ แƒฉแƒ”แƒšแƒ˜แƒก แƒ—แƒแƒ แƒ’แƒ›แƒแƒœแƒก.


๐Ÿ‘‰๐Ÿ‘‰๐Ÿ‘‰ Dioguardi-แƒ˜แƒก แƒ›แƒ˜แƒ”แƒ  แƒ“แƒแƒ–แƒฃแƒกแƒขแƒ”แƒ‘แƒฃแƒšแƒ˜ แƒกแƒแƒ แƒฉแƒ”แƒšแƒ˜:


แƒจแƒ”แƒ”แƒ แƒ—แƒ”แƒ‘แƒฃแƒšแƒ˜ แƒจแƒขแƒแƒขแƒ”แƒ‘แƒ˜แƒก แƒ แƒแƒ˜แƒแƒœแƒฃแƒšแƒ˜ แƒกแƒแƒกแƒแƒ›แƒแƒ แƒ—แƒšแƒ
แƒœแƒ˜แƒฃ แƒ˜แƒแƒ แƒ™แƒ˜แƒก แƒกแƒแƒ›แƒฎแƒ แƒ”แƒ—แƒ˜ แƒแƒšแƒฅแƒ˜
แƒฏแƒแƒœ แƒ“แƒ˜แƒแƒ’แƒแƒ แƒ“แƒ˜, แƒ›แƒแƒกแƒแƒ แƒฉแƒ”แƒšแƒ”
-แƒฌแƒ˜แƒœแƒแƒแƒฆแƒ›แƒ“แƒ”แƒ’-
แƒฐแƒแƒ แƒ˜ แƒ›. แƒ“แƒ”แƒ แƒœแƒ˜แƒœแƒ’แƒ˜ แƒ˜แƒœแƒ“แƒ˜แƒ•แƒ˜แƒ“แƒฃแƒแƒšแƒฃแƒ แƒแƒ“ แƒ“แƒ แƒ แƒแƒ’แƒแƒ แƒช แƒกแƒแƒ‘แƒแƒŸแƒ แƒจแƒ”แƒ›แƒ’แƒ แƒแƒ•แƒ”แƒ‘แƒ”แƒšแƒ˜ แƒœแƒ˜แƒฃ-แƒ˜แƒแƒ แƒ™แƒ˜แƒก แƒžแƒแƒ แƒขแƒจแƒ˜, แƒ›แƒแƒžแƒแƒกแƒฃแƒฎแƒ”
แƒ›แƒแƒกแƒแƒ แƒฉแƒ”แƒšแƒ”, แƒ˜แƒกแƒ”แƒ•แƒ” แƒ แƒแƒ’แƒแƒ แƒช แƒ›แƒแƒžแƒแƒกแƒฃแƒฎแƒ” แƒจแƒ”แƒกแƒฌแƒแƒ แƒ”แƒ‘แƒฃแƒš แƒกแƒแƒฉแƒ˜แƒ•แƒแƒ แƒจแƒ˜, แƒžแƒแƒขแƒ˜แƒ•แƒ˜แƒกแƒชแƒ”แƒ›แƒ˜แƒ— แƒแƒชแƒฎแƒแƒ“แƒ”แƒ‘แƒก:
แƒžแƒ˜แƒ แƒ•แƒ”แƒšแƒ˜: แƒ›แƒ” แƒ›แƒกแƒฃแƒ แƒก แƒกแƒแƒ›แƒแƒ แƒ—แƒšแƒ˜แƒแƒœแƒแƒ‘แƒ แƒฉแƒ”แƒ›แƒ˜ แƒกแƒแƒ›แƒ™แƒฃแƒ แƒœแƒแƒšแƒ แƒ”แƒฅแƒกแƒขแƒ แƒแƒฅแƒขแƒ”แƒ‘แƒ˜แƒก แƒกแƒแƒคแƒฃแƒซแƒ•แƒ”แƒšแƒ–แƒ”, แƒ แƒแƒ›แƒšแƒ”แƒ‘แƒ˜แƒช แƒ’แƒแƒฃแƒฉแƒ˜แƒœแƒแƒ แƒ“แƒ, แƒกแƒแƒ“แƒแƒช แƒœแƒแƒ—แƒฅแƒ•แƒแƒ›แƒ˜แƒ, แƒ แƒแƒ› แƒ›แƒแƒฎแƒ“แƒ แƒ›แƒแƒ—แƒ˜ แƒ’แƒแƒŸแƒแƒœแƒ•แƒ, แƒ แƒแƒช แƒจแƒ”แƒฃแƒซแƒšแƒ”แƒ‘แƒ”แƒšแƒ˜แƒ แƒ˜แƒงแƒแƒก แƒ›แƒแƒ แƒ—แƒแƒšแƒ˜, แƒ แƒแƒ’แƒแƒ แƒช แƒ˜แƒกแƒ˜แƒœแƒ˜ แƒฉแƒแƒ›แƒแƒกแƒฎแƒ›แƒฃแƒšแƒ˜ แƒ˜แƒงแƒ.
แƒ›แƒ”แƒแƒ แƒ”: แƒ‘แƒแƒขแƒแƒœแƒ˜ แƒ”.แƒ’. แƒ™แƒแƒšแƒแƒ แƒ“แƒ˜แƒก แƒฃแƒคแƒ แƒแƒกแƒ˜ แƒ™แƒšแƒ”แƒ แƒ™แƒ˜ แƒ“แƒแƒ›แƒžแƒ˜แƒ แƒ“แƒ, แƒ แƒแƒ› แƒฉแƒ”แƒ›แƒก แƒกแƒแƒฅแƒแƒœแƒ”แƒšแƒก แƒ’แƒแƒ“แƒแƒฎแƒ“แƒ˜แƒกแƒ—แƒแƒœแƒแƒ•แƒ” แƒ›แƒแƒ›แƒชแƒ”แƒ›แƒ“แƒ. แƒ›แƒ”แƒ แƒ” แƒฃแƒชแƒ”แƒ‘ แƒ’แƒแƒ“แƒแƒฎแƒ“แƒ”แƒ‘แƒ˜ แƒจแƒ”แƒฌแƒงแƒ“แƒ.
แƒ›แƒ”แƒกแƒแƒ›แƒ”: แƒ›แƒแƒจแƒ˜แƒœ แƒ›แƒแƒก แƒแƒ  แƒกแƒฃแƒ แƒ“แƒ แƒฉแƒ”แƒ›แƒ˜ แƒœแƒ˜แƒ•แƒ—แƒ”แƒ‘แƒ˜แƒก แƒ’แƒแƒงแƒ˜แƒ“แƒ•แƒ 5%-แƒ˜แƒแƒœแƒ˜ แƒคแƒแƒกแƒ“แƒแƒ™แƒšแƒ”แƒ‘แƒ˜แƒ—, แƒ แƒแƒช แƒฉแƒ”แƒ›แƒ—แƒ•แƒ˜แƒก แƒซแƒแƒšแƒ˜แƒแƒœ แƒ›แƒœแƒ˜แƒจแƒ•แƒœแƒ”แƒšแƒแƒ•แƒแƒœแƒ˜ แƒ˜แƒงแƒ แƒ›แƒแƒก แƒจแƒ”แƒ›แƒ“แƒ”แƒ’, แƒ แƒแƒช แƒ›แƒ” แƒฃแƒ™แƒ•แƒ” แƒ’แƒแƒ“แƒแƒ•แƒ˜แƒฎแƒแƒ“แƒ” แƒ›แƒแƒ—แƒจแƒ˜ $5000, แƒ’แƒแƒ แƒ“แƒ แƒกแƒฎแƒ•แƒ แƒฎแƒแƒ แƒฏแƒ”แƒ‘แƒ˜แƒกแƒ.
แƒ›แƒ”แƒแƒ—แƒฎแƒ”: แƒ แƒแƒขแƒแƒ› แƒ›แƒ˜แƒ”แƒชแƒ แƒฌแƒแƒ›แƒแƒšแƒ˜ Springdale Distilling Co.-แƒก, แƒฉแƒ”แƒ›แƒก แƒ›แƒ˜แƒ”แƒ  แƒแƒฃแƒฅแƒชแƒ˜แƒแƒœแƒ–แƒ” แƒจแƒ”แƒ—แƒแƒ•แƒแƒ–แƒ”แƒ‘แƒฃแƒš แƒคแƒแƒกแƒแƒ“ 110 แƒ“แƒแƒšแƒแƒ แƒแƒ“; แƒ“แƒ แƒแƒ แƒ แƒ›แƒแƒ— แƒ›แƒ˜แƒ”แƒ  แƒจแƒ”แƒ—แƒแƒ•แƒแƒ–แƒ”แƒ‘แƒฃแƒš แƒคแƒแƒกแƒแƒ“ 120 แƒ“แƒแƒšแƒแƒ แƒแƒ“?
แƒ›แƒ”แƒฎแƒฃแƒ—แƒ”: แƒแƒ“แƒ•แƒ˜แƒšแƒ˜ แƒแƒ  แƒแƒ แƒ˜แƒก 37 1 แƒšแƒ˜แƒขแƒ แƒ˜แƒแƒœแƒ˜ แƒ‘แƒแƒ—แƒšแƒ˜แƒก แƒแƒ แƒ˜ แƒงแƒฃแƒ—แƒ˜แƒก แƒ›แƒแƒจแƒแƒ แƒ”แƒ‘แƒ. แƒ˜แƒกแƒ˜แƒœแƒ˜ แƒ™แƒแƒ แƒ’แƒแƒ“ แƒ˜แƒงแƒ•แƒœแƒ”แƒœ แƒจแƒ”แƒคแƒฃแƒ—แƒฃแƒšแƒ”แƒ‘แƒ˜ แƒ“แƒ แƒฃแƒœแƒ“แƒ แƒ’แƒแƒ”แƒซแƒšแƒแƒ— แƒแƒกแƒ”แƒ—แƒ˜ แƒจแƒ”แƒ›แƒ—แƒฎแƒ•แƒ”แƒ•แƒ˜แƒกแƒแƒ—แƒ•แƒ˜แƒก.
แƒ›แƒ”แƒ”แƒฅแƒ•แƒกแƒ”: แƒ•แƒ”แƒ แƒแƒ•แƒ˜แƒœ แƒจแƒ”แƒแƒฉแƒ”แƒ แƒ”แƒ‘แƒก แƒฉแƒ”แƒ›แƒก แƒฃแƒคแƒšแƒ”แƒ‘แƒ”แƒ‘แƒก แƒฉแƒ”แƒ›แƒก แƒžแƒ แƒแƒ“แƒฃแƒฅแƒขแƒ–แƒ”, แƒ•แƒ˜แƒœแƒแƒ˜แƒ“แƒแƒœ แƒ›แƒแƒ—แƒ˜ แƒกแƒแƒ™แƒฃแƒ—แƒ แƒ”แƒ‘แƒ˜แƒก แƒ“แƒ แƒจแƒ”แƒ›แƒแƒขแƒแƒœแƒ˜แƒก แƒ’แƒแƒ›แƒ.
แƒแƒ›แƒ˜แƒขแƒแƒ›: แƒ›แƒแƒกแƒแƒ แƒฉแƒ”แƒšแƒ” แƒ˜แƒ—แƒฎแƒแƒ•แƒก แƒกแƒแƒกแƒแƒ›แƒแƒ แƒ—แƒšแƒ แƒ’แƒแƒ“แƒแƒฌแƒงแƒ•แƒ”แƒขแƒ˜แƒšแƒ”แƒ‘แƒแƒก แƒ›แƒแƒžแƒแƒกแƒฃแƒฎแƒ˜แƒก แƒฌแƒ˜แƒœแƒแƒแƒฆแƒ›แƒ“แƒ”แƒ’, แƒ˜แƒœแƒ“แƒ˜แƒ•แƒ˜แƒ“แƒฃแƒแƒšแƒฃแƒ แƒแƒ“ แƒ“แƒ แƒ แƒแƒ’แƒแƒ แƒช แƒกแƒแƒ‘แƒแƒŸแƒ แƒจแƒ”แƒ›แƒ’แƒ แƒแƒ•แƒ”แƒ‘แƒ”แƒšแƒ˜ แƒœแƒ˜แƒฃ-แƒ˜แƒแƒ แƒ™แƒ˜แƒก แƒžแƒแƒ แƒขแƒจแƒ˜, แƒฎแƒฃแƒ—แƒ˜ แƒแƒ—แƒแƒกแƒ˜ แƒ“แƒแƒšแƒแƒ แƒ˜แƒก แƒแƒ“แƒ”แƒœแƒแƒ‘แƒ˜แƒ— (5,000 แƒแƒจแƒจ แƒ“แƒแƒšแƒแƒ แƒ˜) แƒžแƒ แƒแƒชแƒ”แƒœแƒขแƒ—แƒแƒœ แƒ”แƒ แƒ—แƒแƒ“ แƒแƒฅ แƒ›แƒ˜แƒ—แƒ˜แƒ—แƒ”แƒ‘แƒฃแƒšแƒ˜ แƒจแƒ”แƒกแƒแƒ‘แƒแƒ›แƒ˜แƒกแƒ˜ แƒ’แƒแƒ“แƒแƒฎแƒ“แƒ˜แƒก แƒ—แƒแƒ แƒ˜แƒฆแƒ”แƒ‘แƒ˜แƒ“แƒแƒœ, แƒแƒกแƒ”แƒ•แƒ” แƒ˜แƒ› แƒฎแƒแƒ แƒฏแƒ”แƒ‘แƒก แƒ แƒแƒช แƒ’แƒแƒฌแƒ”แƒฃแƒš แƒ˜แƒฅแƒœแƒ แƒแƒ› แƒกแƒแƒ แƒฉแƒ”แƒšแƒ—แƒแƒœ แƒ“แƒแƒ™แƒแƒ•แƒจแƒ˜แƒ แƒ”แƒ‘แƒ˜แƒ—.

๐ŸŸ ๐ŸŸก๐ŸŸข๐Ÿ”ต๐ŸŸฃโšซ๏ธโšช๏ธ๐ŸŸค


๐Ÿ“Œ Introduction


Welcome to "Case from US," a weekly column brought to you by AI Law, where we present an alternative viewpoint on important matters of Georgian law and various legal domains in general. Through this column, we delve into a wide range of legal cases and precedents from the United States, offering a unique perspective that aims to expand your understanding of legal concepts and their practical application.


Our goal is to cultivate critical thinking and advocate for a comprehensive approach to legal analysis. "Case from US" explores diverse legal scenarios, including contract law, civil procedure, intellectual property, corporate issues, and more. By examining notable cases from the United States, we encourage you to engage in thoughtful discussions and contemplate the potential implications and lessons that can be derived for the Georgian legal system.


๐Ÿš€ Today's Issue: Admission of Lawsuits in Georgian Courts


Initiating a civil lawsuit in Georgian courts can be a daunting and challenging endeavor. In practice, individuals often face significant difficulties when attempting to commence legal proceedings. Several factors contribute to the complexity of the process, including the strict adherence to formal requirements and the courts' active role in rejecting lawsuits based on procedural grounds.


One of the primary obstacles encountered by litigants is the courts' strong emphasis on adhering strictly to the formal requirements outlined in the civil procedure code. Any deviation from these requirements, whether it pertains to the presentation of facts, the application of the law, or the basis of the claim, can result in the dismissal of the lawsuit. This rigid adherence to formalities places a substantial burden on individuals seeking legal redress and exacerbates the already intricate nature of the legal system.


The courts' proactive approach to scrutinizing lawsuits for procedural compliance often leads to case rejections. Consequently, even if the underlying facts or legal arguments are robust, a lawsuit may be dismissed solely on procedural grounds. The responsibility of ensuring meticulous adherence to procedural rules falls upon the litigants, who may find themselves disadvantaged due to their limited understanding of the intricate legal framework.


Moreover, the requirement for precision and accuracy in presenting facts, applying relevant laws, and establishing the basis of the claim adds another layer of complexity to the process. Any ambiguity or inadequacy in these areas can result in the rejection of the lawsuit. Litigants must navigate the intricate legal landscape and ensure that their claims are presented in a manner that satisfies the stringent requirements outlined in the civil procedure code.


Here are some interesting reasons from practical cases where claims were refused:

  • In one case, the court rejected the claim because the price of the disputed item was stated with too much precision, leading the court to mistakenly believe that the claim and the price were significantly different from each other.

  • Lawsuits are frequently not accepted by courts when the party fails to mention the specific contract being disputed in the claim.

  • Conversely, the court may refuse to accept a claim if the party requests the invalidity of an already invalid contract. According to the established practice of the Supreme Court, such claims do not require filing a separate claim and can be stated as a fact.

  • In partnership disputes, the court may reject a claim if all members of the partnership are not named as defendants, even though it is the plaintiff's prerogative to define the defendants.

  • In one instance, a lawsuit submitted after two years of proceedings was left unconsidered by the court because the party made a demand for recognition, which the court deemed lacked any interest. The demand pertained to the vindication of real estate.

  • Courts often refuse to accept claims in proceedings, stating that the party must "clearly" establish the factual circumstances, without providing clear guidance on what the court means by "clearly."

โš–๏ธ Dioguardi v. Durning, 139 F.2d 774 (1944) ๐Ÿค–


The American case of Dioguardi v. Durning is a classic example of a lawsuit being denied based on procedural grounds. Dioguardi, the plaintiff in this case, tried to import medicinal tonics from Italy. However, he had a disagreement with the shipper regarding the amount he owed for the shipment. As a result, the Collector of Customs at the Port of New York, Durning, held the tonics for one year and then sold them at a public auction, as required by federal law. Dioguardi decided to file a lawsuit, presenting two claims in his self-drafted complaint. First, he alleged that the Collector sold the bottles to someone else for $10 less than what he had bid at the auction. Second, he claimed that two cases of tonics went missing three weeks before the sale, possibly due to the Collector's negligence. The district court dismissed the complaint, stating that it failed to state a claim that could provide relief. Dioguardi then appealed the decision to the United States Court of Appeals.


The question was whether the District Court was wrong in dismissing the plaintiff's complaint for not stating a claim that warranted relief. The United States Court of Appeals reversed the judgment and sent the case back to the lower court for further proceedings.


The court observed that, according to the new rules of civil procedure, a complaint should provide a concise statement of the claim that demonstrates the plaintiff's entitlement to relief. They found that although the plaintiff's claims were not eloquently presented, they were sufficient to withstand a formal motion to dismiss.


๐Ÿ‘‰๐Ÿ‘‰๐Ÿ‘‰ Dioguardiโ€™s Amended Complaint:


UNITED STATES DISTRICT COURT
SOUTHERN DISTRICT OF NEW YORK
JOHN DIOGUARDI, Plaintiff
-against-
HARRY M. DURNING Individually and as Collector of Customs at the Port of New York, Defendant
Plaintiff, as and for his bill of amended complaint the defendant, respectยญfully alleges:
FIRST: I want justice done on the basis of my medicinal extracts which have disappeared saying that they had leaked, which could never be true in the manner they were bottled.
SECOND: Mr. E.G. Collard Clerk in Charge, promised to give me my merchandise as soon as I paid for it. Then all of a sudden payments were stopped.
THIRD: Then, he didn't want to sell me my merchandise at catalogue price with the 5% off, which was very important to me, after I had already paid $5,000 for them, beside a few other expenses.
FOURTH: Why was the medicinaly given to the Springdale Distilling Co. with my betting price of $110; and not their price of $120.
FIFTH: It isn't so easy to do away with two cases with 37 bottles of one quart. Being protected, they can take this chance.
SIXTH: No one can stop my rights upon my merchandise, because of both the duly and the entry.
WHEREFORE: Plaintiff demands judgment against the defendant, individually and as Collector of Customs at the Port of New York, in the sum of Five Thousand Dollars ($5,000) together with interest from the respective dates of payment as set forth herein, together with the costs and disbursements of this action.
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